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WHA:臺灣務實外交的勝利?(二之一)

五月 20, 2009 By: 栢齊 Category: 環球視野

中華臺北成為WHA觀察員一事,在臺灣鬧得沸沸揚揚,泛綠主要的抨擊點,是今次「扣關」成功,實是大陸的允許使然,有所謂矮化臺灣的主權云云。為此,首先要看一下出席WHA的單位為何。根據2008年第61屆WHA的"List of Delegates and Other Participants"(http://www.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/A61/A61_DIV1R1.pdf),出席的單位包括:

  1. President and Vice-Presidents
  2. Chairmen, Vice-Chairmen and Rapporteurs of Committees A and B
  3. Representatives of the Executive Board
  4. Delegations of Member and Associate Member States (including 193 members and 2 associate members)
  5. Observers for a Nonmember State (namely Holy See)
  6. Observers (namely Sovereign Military Order of Malta, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies)
  7. Observers invited in accordance with Resolution WHA27.37 (namely Palestine)
  8. Representatives of the United Nations and Related Organizations (e.g. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme)
  9. Specialized Agencies (e.g. International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization)
  10. Representatives of Other Intergovernmental Organizations (e.g. Commonwealth Secretariat, European Commission)
  11. Representatives of Nongovernmental Organizations in Official Relations with WHO (e.g. International Alliance of Patients’ Organization, OXFAM)

從上述名單所見,(1)至(3)為經由WHA大會各成員國代表選舉產生的人員,(4)為各成員國及附屬會員的代表團,(5)為非成員國觀察員(只有教廷),(6)為一般觀察員,(7)為根據WHA27.37號決議邀請的觀察員(即巴勒斯坦),(8)至(11)則為聯合國及其成員組織、以及其他政府間和非政府組織的代表。

由於今屆WHA的出席名單尚未正式公佈,故仍未能得悉中華臺北屬於上述哪一類別。不過,根據有關方面提供的資料顯示,今次中華臺北是以觀察員的身份出席,相信應屬(6)類別。在此類別中,包括馬耳他騎士團(SMOM)、紅十字國際委員會(ICRC)和紅十字會與紅新月會國際聯合會(IFRC),三者俱為國際法下的特殊法人,倘若中華臺北列入此類別,當會給人以具有一定國際地位的感覺。然而,倘若細閱WHO章程內有關出席WHA的法理依據(Article 18(h)) (http://www.who.int/governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf),便會發現泛綠的批評並非全無根據。該條文是這麼寫的:

“(h) to invite any organization, international or national, governmental or non-governmental, which has responsibilities related to those of the Organization, to appoint representatives to participate, without right of vote, in its meetings or in those of the committees and conferences convened under its authority, on conditions prescribed by the Health Assembly; but in the case of national organizations, invitations shall be issued only with the consent of the Government concerned."

條文將被邀請的組織(organization)細分為"international or national"(國際或國內)和"governmental or non-governmental"(政府或非政府),中華臺北不是international亦非non-governmental,按理應屬national and governmental,如是者,則條文的最後一句,即"but in the case of national organizations, invitations shall be issued only with the consent of the Government concerned",便適用於此個案,這裡所指的"with the consent of the Government concerned",便是泛綠所抨擊的大陸允許,這亦是兩岸當局公佈此消息時所故意忽略的,設若屬實,則長遠而言,當有損臺灣的國際地位,而如日後其參加其他政府間國際組織亦依循此模式,最終極可能會導致國際社會對「臺灣(中華臺北)從屬於中華人民共和國」的共識,這潛在的法理危機,相信臺灣方面是了然於胸的,而仍然採用的原因,相信是其衡量國際現實政治,以及面對民望低迷與嚴峻的社經形勢(金融海嘯加甲型流感),為挽回民眾信心,所作的不得已的選擇。因此,臺灣參與國際組織是否從此一帆風順,仍是言之尚早。

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